By Patrick Seeling
Multimedia networking purposes and, specifically, the shipping of c- pressed video are anticipated to give a contribution signi?cantly to the tra?c sooner or later net and instant networks. For shipping over networks, video is sometimes encoded (i. e. , compressed) to lessen the bandwidth specifications. Even compressed video, although, calls for huge bandwidths of the order of hundred kbps or Mbps. additionally, compressed video streams often - hibit hugely variable bit premiums (VBR) in addition to lengthy diversity dependence (LRD) homes. This, at the side of the stringent caliber of provider (QoS) necessities (loss and hold up) of video tra?c, makes the shipping of video tra?covercommunicationnetworksachallengingproblem. Asaconsequence, within the final decade the networking learn group has witnessed an - plosion in study on all facets of video delivery. The features of video tra?c, video tra?c modeling, in addition to protocols and mechanisms for the e?cient delivery of video streams, have bought loads of curiosity between networking researchers and community operators and a plethora of video shipping schemes were built. For constructing and comparing video delivery mechanisms and for - seek on video networking often, it is crucial to have to be had a few characterizationofthevideo. Generally,therearethreedi?erentwaystoch- acterize encoded video for the aim of networking study: (i)video tra?c model,(ii) video bit circulation, and (iii) video tra?c trace.
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Extra info for Video Traces for Network Performance Evaluation: A Comprehensive Overview and Guide on Video Traces and Their Utilization in Networking Research
21) The Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) in decibels (dB) is generally deﬁned as PSNR = 10 · log10 (p2 /MSE), where p denotes the maximum luminance value of a pixel (255 in 8–bit pictures). We deﬁne the quality (in dB) of a video frame n as Qn = 10 · log10 p2 . 22) We deﬁne the average quality (in dB) of a video sequence consisting of N frames as 2 ¯ = 10 · log10 p . 23) Note that in this deﬁnition of the average quality, the averaging is conducted with the MSE values and the video quality is given in terms of the PSNR (in dB).
N − 1, denote the quality (in terms of the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR)) of the luminance component of the encoded (and subsequently decoded) video V frame n (in dB). Similarly, let QU n and Qn , n = 0, . . , N − 1, denote the qualities of the two chrominance components hue (U) and saturation (V) of the encoded video frame n (in dB). 1 Video Source VHS To obtain the uncompressed video from traditional video tapes, each of the studied video sequences was played from a VHS tape using a video cassette recorder (VCR).
The inter–coded frames use motion estimation and compensation techniques relying on the previous inter– or intra–coded frame. The bi–directional encoded frames rely on a previous as well as a following intra– or inter–coded frame. This prediction information results in smaller frame sizes for the P– frames and even smaller frame sizes for the B–frames. 3 Scalable Video Encoding 29 Forward prediction I B B P B B P B B P B B I Backward prediction Fig. 14: Typical MPEG Group of Pictures (GoP) consisting of I, P and B frames (frames 1–12).
Video Traces for Network Performance Evaluation: A Comprehensive Overview and Guide on Video Traces and Their Utilization in Networking Research by Patrick Seeling