By Dr. med. Ernst Stein (auth.)
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The skin must be wiped with alcohol. Many sterile alcoholic products are effective; they typically have an onset of action within 15-60 s. When preparing for operations, the skin should be cleansed with alcohol products for 3 min . Povidone-iodine preparations are the best choice for disinfecting mucosal surfaces. Irritation is minimal and discoloration is easily washed away. Surface Disinfection Surface disinfection covers all those objects which cannot be disinfected by being placed or dipped in a container.
The anal columns contain vascular beds served by arteries which can engorge; they are known as glomera rectalia or corpus cavernosum recti . These vascular bodies, served by the branches of the superior rectal artery, also playa role in continence. When they are engorged and the sphincter is contracted, the columns fit together like the teeth of a gear mechanisms. This seals the mucosal surfaces, making the anal canal for the most part water and air tight. In this way, the mucosa provides the final fine touch for continence.
Physical thermovement subsides. When an individual conscious- apy with exercises to strengthen the pelvic musculaly tries to restrict bowel movements, the rectum can ture and improve the individual's voluntary control accommodate up to 2 1of stool. If this happens fre- over these muscles is often helpful, as are active quently, the threshold for the defecation reflex may sphincter contraction training plans. The latter be raised so high that it is not regularly experienced may be combined with biofeedback ("operant condiand instead constipation with overflow inconti- tioning") which has been shown to be particularly nence occurs.
Anorectal and Colon Diseases: Textbook and Color Atlas of Proctology by Dr. med. Ernst Stein (auth.)