By Maria Dolores Luque Castro; Miguel Valcarcel Cases; M T Tena
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Extra info for Analytical Supercritical Fluid Extraction
Density, viscosity) subjected to a pressure above its Pc change gradually as the temperature is raised (a horizontal movement in Fig. 1, which leads to the formation of a critical fluid); likewise, a gas which has been heated above its Tc becomes a supercritical fluid on gradually increasing the pressure (a vertical movement in Fig. 1). As can be seen in Fig. 2, there are two different ways of reaching a given final supercritical state. One involves starting at point A in the liquid region, increasing the pressure above Pc and then raising the temperature above Tc until the Supercritical region 34 Physico-Chemical Properties of Supercritical Fluids Fig.
The definition of this type of extraction can be drawn from its placement among innovative alternatives to preliminary operations (Fig. 3) and in the different classifications of separation techniques in general (Fig. 5) and extraction techniques in particular (Fig. 6). Supercritical Fluids and Analytical Chemistry 29 SELECTIVITY GC SFC Fig. 13. Advantages of each column chromatographic technique [liquid (LC), gas (GC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC)] in terms of the three capital parameters located at the triangle vertices.
LEACHING STREAM REAGENT 1 PERISTALTIC PUMP Fig. 10. Automatic leaching of soil and vegetable samples with recirculation and ultrasonic irradiation, coupled on-line to continuous derivatization/detection. SV: switching valve. For further details, see [33,34]. (Reproduced with permission of Elsevier Science Publishers) 200-300 ~l of extracting solution is circulated with the aid of an additional peristaltic pump. In the leaching position, the valve disconnects the circuit from the remaining continuous assembly.
Analytical Supercritical Fluid Extraction by Maria Dolores Luque Castro; Miguel Valcarcel Cases; M T Tena