By Philipp Haller
Fresh developments in laptop structure make concurrency and parallelism a vital factor of effective application execution. The actor version of concurrency enables you to show real-world concurrency in a traditional means utilizing concurrent techniques that converse through asynchronous messages. Scala is a programming language for the Java digital computer, supplying very good help for either object-oriented and useful programming. via together with a strong actor framework in its normal library, Scala bargains a compelling method of take on concurrent programming. Scala's actors allow you to practice the actor concurrency version to the JVM, permitting real-world suggestions which are effective, scalable, and powerful. released by way of Artima, this is often the 1st ebook on Scala's actors, co-authored by way of the author and lead maintainer, Philipp Haller, and Frank Sommers. beginning with the basics of the actor concurrency version, this publication deals a finished educational on functional programming with actors in Scala. It helps you to leverage the total energy of cutting-edge and tomorrow's multi-core processors through describing either easy and complex beneficial properties of Scala's actor framework in-depth.
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Additional info for Actors in Scala
Scala’s case classes provide a convenient way to define classes whose constructor wraps other data elements that are part of the class: case class ConfirmationMessage( paymentStatus: String, shippingStatus: String ) All you need to do is preface the class with case, and list the class’s constituent objects in the constructors. The Scala compiler adds some syntactic sugar to such classes, such as a proper implementation of equals and hashCode, and makes it possible for you to use case classes in pattern matching.
As we mentioned in the previous chapter, the benefits of concurrency come about as a result of having few requirements about the order in which threads wind their way through a program and access program state. In effect, synchronization turns parts of a program into sequential code because only one thread at a time can access the global, or shared, state. Indeed, if control flow through a program relies on globally visible state, there is no way around serialized access to that state without risking incorrect behavior.
It would be ideal to generalize withSocket to operate on any class with a close method. close() } } The withResource method declares a type parameter A, which is “at least” a type with a close() method that returns a Unit, Scala’s equivalent of void. The <: symbol indicates an upper type bound: A must be a subtype of the type referred to on the right of the <: symbol, in this case, a type that structurally conforms to the code block with the close() method. Thus, the first value parameter of withResource() must be a subtype of anything with a close() method—for instance, a Socket—and the second value parameter is a function that consumes this instance and returns a value of a different type, B.
Actors in Scala by Philipp Haller