Download A Sense of Their Duty: Middle-Class Formation in Victorian by Andrew Holman PDF

By Andrew Holman

ISBN-10: 0773518991

ISBN-13: 9780773518995

Industrial swap, the growth of presidency in any respect degrees, and inhabitants progress all contributed to profound changes in Ontario's social constitution among the 1850s and the Nineties. The altering setting created new possibilities, new wealth, and new authority. In urbanizing Ontario, an identifiable and self-identified center type emerged among the idle wealthy and the perennial operating type. utilizing the cities of Galt and Goderich as case reviews, Andrew Holman exhibits how middle-class identities have been shaped at paintings. He exhibits how businessmen, execs, and white-collar employees constructed a brand new experience of authority that prolonged past the place of work. As neighborhood electors, participants of voluntary institutions and reform societies, and breadwinners, middle-class males set criteria of right and anticipated habit for themselves and others, criteria for decent habit that persisted to take pleasure in forex and relevance in the course of the 20th century.

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Systematic wage rates for Ontario in these years are not readily available, and recent research in reconstructing them has focused largely on working-class standards of living. But some fragmentary evidence remains that illustrates how pay differences reinforced the line drawn between manual and non-manual work in the mid-Victorian era. Wage schedules from the Ontario Bureau of Industries' reports for the i88os, for example, are instructive. 38. 21. 27 Work, Authority, and the Middle Class Significantly, every non-manual occupation listed surpassed both the average wage and almost every wage for a manual occupation.

9 There is no small difficulty in determining an appropriate point of departure for studying a topic as vast as the middle class in Canadian history. Inevitably, though, a series of questions both historical and historiographical emerge and recur. Why has the middle class not been studied in Canadian history as a "class unto themselves"? What do we mean by the term "middle class"? What kinds of conceptual frameworks or strategies can historians use as guides to better define the middle class as an historical subject?

Rather, a system of production - capitalism - distributed people into "class situations" (wage-labourer, salaried professional, capitalist). Class formation itself emerged from conflicts between the interests articulated and "felt" by people within these situations. Here, the middle class, like the wealthy and working classes, exists only as conflict group; it behaves in "class ways" only through collective struggle. "21 But what conflicts? " John Gilkeson's Middle-Class Providence, 1820— 1940, (1986), is a rare example of the application of a Thompsonian conception of class to the intermediate stratum.

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A Sense of Their Duty: Middle-Class Formation in Victorian Ontario Towns by Andrew Holman

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